Are Shabbat and Kashrut Bad For Business?

As a founding member of the National Museum of American Jewish History I was troubled to learn of the museum’s decision regarding the discarding of time honored Shabbat observances. The museum’s administration has decided to sell tickets on Shabbat, keep the café open and rent space for Friday night events. Also the café will no longer be kosher and non-kosher catering will be allowed. As if all those changes were not enough, it was decided to change the annual marketing label “Being Jewish on Christmas” to “Being __ on Christmas”. They deleted the word ‘Jewish’ from their slogan but kept ‘Christmas’.
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NMAJH Exhibition: Jewish Refugee Scholars At Black Colleges

— by Ilana Blumenthal

The National Museum of American Jewish History kicks off an exciting January-February programs calendar with the upcoming special exhibition, opening January 15 — Beyond Swastika and Jim Crow: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Black Colleges.

This moving exhibition tells the little-known story of Jewish academics who came to America in the 1930s as refugees and found homes, work, and community at historically black colleges in the segregated South.  

The following public programs held in conjunction with this exhibition provide an opportunity to further explore the themes found in the exhibition such as mentorship, leadership, identity, and cross-cultural understanding through music, film, theater, and great conversation. The season begins with our annual free Martin Luther King Family Day on Monday, January 21.

Food Chat: Just a Pinch

— by Hannah Lee

When you might think of Jewish cooking in America, you might conjure the iconic Ashkenazic staples of gefilte fish and noodle kugel, but the earliest Jewish cooking in the Americas was Sephardic, said Emily August, Public Programs Manager, in her role as moderator for a program, “Just a Pinch: A Brief and Unofficial History of Jewish Cooking in America,” held on Wednesday at the National Museum of American Jewish History. Jews immigrating from Brazil brought their taste for almond pudding and fish fried in oil, which became a favorite food of our third president Thomas Jefferson, citing Ronit Treatman’s article in The Philadelphia Jewish Voice.

More after the jump.
Drawing upon the food-themed artifacts from its museum collections, she proceeded to delight and enlighten the audience with the assistance of the dramatic reading talents of four people: Francine Berk, currently playing the role of Bubbie in The Stoop on Orchard Street; B.D. Boudreaux, director of and playing Old Man in The Stoop on Orchard Street; Siobhan Reardon, the President and Director of the Free Library of Philadelphia; and restauranteur Audrey Claire Taichman, owner of Audrey Claire and Twenty Manning Grill. Multilingual volunteers from the audience also participated in descriptive narration.

In 1889, Bloch Publishing Company, the oldest Jewish publishing firm in the United States, issued Aunt Babette’s Cook Book: Foreign and Domestic Receipts for the Household. It encouraged accommodation to American life with recipes for Easter, oysters, and treyfe (sic).

In 1901, The Settlement Cook Book: The Way to a Man’s Heart was published by the Milwaukee Settlement House and it became an important staple of the American kitchen for more than 50 years. In an interview before his death in 1985, the noted gourmet and author, James Beard, known as “The Father of American Gastronomy,” called this cookbook his personal favorite.  This cookbook was to serve as a guidebook for the new immigrants, to help them learn about middle-class American culture.

In 1914, the Hebrew Publishing Company issued the first Yiddish cookbook and it encouraged readers to adopt modern ways of cooking, moving from gefilte fish to American cuisine. It was printed with recipe instruction in both English and Yiddish, to avoid the language gap, so that the immigrant and first-generation members could cook together.

World War I brought the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act, to ensure an adequate supply of essential supplies to our soldiers and allies in Europe. The U.S. government printed and distributed pamphlets in diverse languages — such as Italian, Polish, Russian, and Yiddish — to guide homemakers on healthy and delicious substitutions for wheat, meat, fats, and sugar. Among the tips were: one meatless meal a week and no second helpings. Herbert Hoover, then head of the Food Administration, set the moral tone with his slogan, “Food will win the war.  Don’t waste it.”

The Catskills grew in prominence as a vacation spot for middle class Jews, after the Grossinger family purchased its 100-acre estate in Ferndale, New York. Several postcards from these resorts and summer camp were read aloud by audience members: they all highlighted the food, whether delicious, as from the former, and terrible, as from the latter.

Another major culinary milestone was the introduction of Crisco in 1911. Proctor & Gamble made a special effort to target the Jewish homemaker, touting its product as pareve, light, sweet-tasting, and shelf-stable. In 1933, they distributed the 77-page pamphlet, Crisco Recipes for the Jewish Housewife, printed in Yiddish and English.  The product, ranging from a 1-lb to 9-lb cans, displayed a blue-and-white label.

As an antidote to the growing secularism of American Jews, the The Jewish Home Beautiful, published in 1941, was an attempt to preserve Jewish ritual with Jewish tableaux (pictures of set tables). As an example of its attention to minute detail, the book recommends for Shavuot: serve two blintzes dusted with 10 lines of cinnamon, to represent the Ten Commandments.

In 1955, Gertrude Berg published The Molly Goldberg Jewish Cookbook, written in the voice of her television persona. Its marketing success was a testament of the purchasing power of the Jewish viewer.

The next major culinary milestone was the formation of Hebrew National and its campaign to promote its frankfurters with the pamphlet 31 Ways to Make Hot Meals Out of Hot Dogs issued in 1955. Soon, its success lead other manufacturers to also appeal to the Jewish market. Planters issued Manna About Town in 1965 to promote its peanut oil. In it, “heirloom recipes…[are] lovingly laced with legend and lore.” Manischewitz introduced a Passover menu planner cookbook in 1963 (and its Passover Hagadah has become a fixture on the Jewish table). The editors knew their stuff and listed as the first ingredient for breakfast, prune juice.

Credit: Hannah WhitakerFinally, Bon Appetit magazine featured the resurgence of the Jewish deli in its recent September issue. Its Editor-in-Chief, Adam Rapoport, in an interview in Haaretz, gave a fitting conclusion to this program: “If you find a good recipe, hold onto it, but share it with a friend.”

Swaying But Not Quite Swayed Sway Machine In Concert At NMAJH

The music group The Sway Machine made its Philadelphia debut the evening of September 20, 2012, at the National Museum of American Jewish History, performing a cycle of songs titled “Hidden Melodies Revealed,” which the group describes as “a secret celebration of Rosh HaShanah.” For this Philadelphia performance, The Sway Machine was Jeremiah Lockwood (guitar, vocals, composition/storytelling), John Bollinger (drums), Stuart Bogie (tenor sax), Jordan McLean (trumpet), and Nikhil Yerawadekar (electric bass). Each of these musicians is a prolific performer and collaborator, with each other and with many another group. The group’s ‘sound’, its ideal to which it is attuned and its traditional referential of origin, is a confluence and combination of various, call them, lineages of music: Klezmer, Jewish cantorial music (Jeremiah Lockwood is the grandson of cantor Jacob Konigsberg), the music of Mali guitarist, singer, and composer Ali Farka Toure, to name just these.
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Seeking an Inner Freedom

—  by Hannah Lee

On Shabbat, my Rabbi challenged our kehillah (congregation) to do more to observe Independence Day than march in a parade.  I love the Fourth of July, my second favorite American holiday after Thanksgiving.  My family invites our friends and neighbors to watch the neighborhood parade that passes in front of our home with us, but how else to celebrate?  Well, before writing this piece, I wrote a letter of thanks to President Obama and inserted it into the mailbox set up at the special exhibit on To Bigotry No Sanction, now at the National Museum of American Jewish History.

More after the jump.
The most thrilling part of the exhibit was seeing that the famous phrase, “to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance,” was first coined by a Jew — Moses Seixas, in a letter on behalf of the Congregation Kahal Kadosh Yeshuat Israel, also known as the Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island.  (The Hebrew name sounds like a contemporary merge.)  

George Washington, newly appointed as the first Chief Magistrate (the title was later changed to President) of the United States of America, echoed back the phrase in his reply, but with a more elegant turn from “to bigotry give no sanction.”  Seeing the original letters side by side as well as other letters that had been penned to Washington made me cognizant of how elegant and scholarly were Washington’s letters.  His reply to Seixas’s letter, which was full of blessings and also freely quoted from the Bible, was the most eloquent letter on display.

On Sunday, Professor Jacob Needleman was interviewed on NPR, and he spoke of our Founding Fathers who had a deeper, fuller meaning for “the pursuit of happiness,” than merely shopping to stimulate the economy.  Professor Needleman said that happiness meant to them a life of virtue.  My Rabbi would concur and say that true happiness means living in accordance with God’s will.  Then, Professor Needleman spoke about an “inner freedom,” one that allows us to maintain strength against popular but misguided ideas and trends, including shop-till-you-drop consumerism.  May we all find an inner freedom of integrity for ourselves and our family.  Happy Independence Day!

The To Bigotry No Sanction, exhibit will be on view at the National Museum of American Jewish History until September 30.  The museum, located at 101 South Independence Mall East, is closed on most Mondays.  

Talkback on “Slaying the Dragon”

— by Hannah Lee

Teshuvah (repentance) is a prominent Jewish value, but what happens when a high Ku Klux Klan high official renounces his life?  The world premiere of the opera, Slaying the Dragon, was heralded by a Q&A session with a panel consisting of: Ellen Frankel, the librettist and managing director of Center City Opera Theater; Kathryn Watterson, author of Not by the Sword: How a Cantor and His Family Transformed a Klansman on which the opera is based; and Bob Wolfson, Associate National Director of Regional Operations for the Anti-Defamation League and formerly the local ADL officer in charge of Lincoln, Nebraska where the events took place.  The panel discussion took place on Sunday, June 3 at the National Museum of American Jewish History.

More after the jump.

In her 1995 book, Watterson, a professor in the English Department of the University of Pennsylvania, chronicled the stranger-than-fiction narrative of Larry Trapp, the Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan’s Lincoln chapter who had a change of heart, renounced his life of hatred and violence, and embraced Judaism.  

A double amputee and blind from the complications of diabetes, Trapp — a black-sheep, distant relation of the von Trapp family singers of The Sound of Music fame —  was inspired by the love and kindness offered by Michael and Julie Weisser.  

A remarkable couple, Michael Weisser was then cantor and spiritual leader of the Reform Congregation B’nai Jeshurun, one of two synagogues in Lincoln, and Julie was herself a convert to Judaism.  Together they were raising five children, and they all welcomed Trapp into their home — with the teen sisters giving up their own room — and nursed him while he was dying from his illness.  When Trapp died at age 42, he was buried in the Jewish cemetery there.

There are still people in the Jewish community in Lincoln who doubt Trapp’s sincerity in his transformation.  Wolfson recounted the “surreal feeling” he had when Trapp, who’d previously threatened his family, rolled up to the ADL office in his wheelchair and asked to give Wolfson a hug.  This was the guy that he had to warn his children against, and the reason they had to monitor the in-coming mail to the house.  

Wolfson thinks it was because the Angel of Death was at his back that Trapp personally apologized to every person he’d hurt in his campaign of hate.  However, it took courage to leave the KKK, because it was a public betrayal — by a Grand Dragon, no less!  The opera deviates from reality in that Trapp is portrayed as vulnerable, being mocked by his fellow Klansmen for his physical disabilities.  In actuality, he was a strong leader and was admired by his Klan, despite his inability to physically carry out the acts of evil and spite that he advocated.

Michael Weisser, now a rabbi in Flushing, New York, was a strong believer in redemption — he’d had his own tragedy to overcome.  Neither he nor his wife were punitive people; their preferred motto was: “Educate, not punish.”  When two college boys were on trial in Lincoln for defacing his synagogue, Weisser offered to lead educational classes for them both in lieu of jail time.  Watterson pointed out that society has surely gained more by the time these misguided youth spent at Weisser’s side than in prison.

Watterson noted that white supremacists are under-developed emotionally.  So much energy is expended on projecting hate that there is no room for personal growth.  Wolfson said that people often prefer to think of these people as “nuts.”  “Some are, but not all are so.”  Larry Trapp was not intellectually impaired, he said, but it is harder to contemplate rational people who hate obsessively.

Could what had happened in Lincoln happen here?  Hatred can happen anywhere.  Wolfson said that Weisser was a radical, whose Reform temple had lost members.  The conservative Jewish community looked askance at him, whom he would describes as “to the left, politically, of Mao Zedong,” the late Communist dictator of China.  

The Jews of Lincoln were Zionist and middle-of-the-road politically and they couldn’t understand Weisser who believed in the prophet-to-the-nation philosophy of Reform Judaism, stressing tikkun olam (repairing the world) and protesting injustice.  However, Weisser built up his congregation and brought life to the synagogue.

Watterson said that she focused on Trapp’s life as a white supremacist, because it was so similar to that of Timothy McVeigh, the man who detonated a truck bomb in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, killing 168 people and injuring more than 800 people, the deadliest act of terrorism within the United States prior to the September 11 attacks in 2001.

Frankel, the librettist, said that the composer, Michael Ching, urged her to make Larry Trapp and Michael and Julie Weisser–  re-named Grand Dragon Jerry Krieg and Rabbi Nathan and Vera Goodman in the opera — less black-and-white evil and goodness incarnate.  He wanted her to bring the characters closer together and find the commonality in them.

Are we in a post-racial world?  Wolfson noted that the world has moved to the right in recent times, citing hate crimes in France, Greece, and the United States. Economic hardship and instability bring out the worst in human nature.  However, liberal-minded people tend not to regard this evidence of persistent racism as a motivation to keep the fight against bigotry at the top of their social action agenda, preferring to think that the issue has been resolved.

It’s most important, Watterson urged, “to get to know each other, beyond our comfort zone, and acknowledge each other’s humanity.”  She noted the spill-over of hate words into general society (e.g., “femini-Nazis”) and the public shaming and blaming tolerated in our communities.  We should foster more creativity, said she, not demonize “people of color.”

Herbert Levine, Frankel’s husband, asked from the audience about how the KKK was able to get away with its open acts of violence?  Where were the police, the FBI?  Wolfson said that in the case of the Asian immigrant community, the Laotian leadership told the police to let them handle acts of violence against their community in their own way.  Thus, after their community center was targeted by “Operation Gooks,” defaced and destroyed by Trapp’s minions, it was re-built by the Asian community anew, but this time behind barbed-wire fencing and patrolled by armed guards.

How strong is the KKK nowadays?  Watterson said they’re very organized — “the movement inspires action.”  One aborted example: Trapp himself had planned on assassinating Jesse Jackson, the black civil rights activist and Baptist minister, figuring that, in his weheelchair, he could get close to his targeted victim.  

Of the white supremacists groups, White Aryan Nation is more powerful, but there are local KKK groups in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.  Wolfson pointed out that the Internet allows these groups to organize more efficiently, not announcing a public rally until “12 minutes before” — with the leaders texting one another — to avoid police intervention.  The ADL (and the FBI) used to infiltrate these groups, but they can now avoid unwanted scrutiny more easily.  Wolfson noted that the biggest problem is the lone wolf, one who operates outside of group sanctions.  Frankel added that the Philly chapter of ADL has a full-time staffer who monitors the communication of hate groups and who maintains an ongoing dialogue with the FBI.

Evening performances of Slaying the Dragon will take place on June 14 and 16, with a 2 pm final show on June 17  at the Helen Corning Warden Theater at the Academy of Vocal Arts, on 1920 Spruce Street.   Limited  seating is available.  For tickets, visit www.OperaTheater.org.

 

How the Nazis Co-Opted Science for Their Goals

By Hannah Lee

Now on display at the Free Library’s main branch is a traveling exhibit from the Holocaust Memorial Museum on how the Nazis used science to justify their contemptible work, titled Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race.  I was horrified to learn that all German geneticists believed in eugenics, including the Jewish ones such as Dr. Richard Goldschmidt (who re-established himself at the University of California at Berkeley).  This felt devastatingly comparable to discovering in the permanent exhibit at the National Museum of American Jewish History that there had been rabbis of the American South who supported slavery.

More after the jump.
In the time since Darwin’s publication of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859, others have sought to apply his breakthrough biological concepts to sociology and politics.  Arguing that modern medicine, charity, and welfare have obstructed the natural selection of by keeping “defectives” alive to reproduce, these Social Darwinists have lobbied for legislation against free and natural procreation.

International Hygiene Exhibition, 1911 promotional poster: The eugenics movement pre-dated Nazi Germany. A 1911 exhibition at the German Hygiene Museum in Dresden included a display on human heredity and ideas to improve it. The exhibition poster features the Enlightenment’s all-seeing eye of God, adapted from the ancient Egyptian “Eye of Ra,” symbolizing fitness or health.

Credit: Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin

Dr. Otmar von Verschuer examines twins at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. As the head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute’s Department for Human Heredity, Verschuer, a physician and geneticist, examined hundreds of pairs of twins to study whether criminality, feeble-mindedness, tuberculosis, and cancer were inheritable. In 1927, he recommended the forced sterilization of the “mentally and morally subnormal.” Verschuer typified those academics whose interest in Germany’s “national regeneration” provided motivation for their research.

Credit: Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin-Dahlem

Dr. Ernst Wentzler treats a child with rickets. Dr. Wentzler’s Berlin pediatric clinic served many wealthy families and high-ranking Nazi officials. Although Wentzler developed methods to treat premature infants or children with severe birth defects, he supported ending the lives of the “incurably ill” and served as a primary coordinator of the pediatric “euthanasia” program, evaluating patient forms and ordering the killing of several thousand children.

Credit: National Library of Medical Science, Bethesda, MD

“You Are Sharing the Load! A Hereditarily Ill Person Costs 50,000 Reichsmarks on Average up to the Age of Sixty,” reproduced in a high school biology textbook by Jakob Graf. The image illustrates Nazi propaganda on the need to prevent births of the “unfit.”

Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Germany was the leader in medicine and science in the early 20th century.  Dr. Alfred Ploetz, a physician and economist, published a major treatise on Rassenhygiene, the German term for eugenics.  He hoped that racial hygiene would help solve problems linked to the nation’s rapid industrialization and urbanization.

Dr. Eugene Fischer gained international renown for his 1913 study of “racial mixing” in the German colony in Southwest Africa.  He shared the “respectable” antisemitism common among Germany’s educated middle classes and academic elite during the 1920’s, though “expressed largely in private and in measured tones.”  Dr. Otmar von Verschuer studied twins for hereditary traits to criminality, feeblemindedness, tuberculosis, and cancer.  He typified academics whose interest in Germany’s “national regeneration” provided significant motivation for scientific research.

A 1920 treatise by Karl Binding, a jurist, and Alfred Hoche, a professor of psychiatry, lead to Berlin’s first eugenics bureau that certified fitness for marriage.  Although sterilization was illegal in Germany until 1933, some doctors were performing the procedure in secret.

In the United States, a 1924 law in Virginia prohibited intermarriage between whites and persons of “other blood.”  Carrie Buck was committed to the Virginia Colony for Epileptics and Feeblemindedness in Lynchburg after bearing a child out of wedlock. Her mother was already on state support, so she was sterilized.  By 1933, 26 states had laws permitting sterilization on eugenic grounds.  From 1909-1933, some 16,000 people were sterilized in the United States, half of them in the state of California.  Roman Catholics and supporters of individual rights opposed eugenics.

In the 1930’s, Norway, Sweden, and Finland along with parts of Switzerland and Canada had enacted sterilization laws.  In Great Britain, it was proposed but not enacted.  But, nowhere was there the scale of execution as in Germany which include persons living at home and in private clinics and hospitals.   Hearings were pro forma and lasted a few minutes.  These routine decisions to sterilize were seldom reversed on appeal.  For women, sterilization meant full anesthesia and two weeks in the hospital.  For men, it was on an outpatient basis.  In Germany, about 5,000 died as the result of surgery and over 90% were of women.  Feeblemindedness was a plastic label applied to poor, uneducated persons from large families dependent on state support.  There were over 400,000 people sterilized between 1934 to 1945.

Doctors joined the Nazi party earlier and in greater numbers than any other professional group.  German medicine was historically conservative and many, especially the younger physicians, hoped their careers would improve under a new regime as Jews were ousted from positions in overcrowded medical fields.  Many also supported the party’s support of eugenics and racial science.

From January 1940 to August 1941, over 70,000 institutionalized adults were killed in gas chambers in Germany and Austria.  The victims included people with schizophrenia, feeblemindedness, and epilepsy.  (Captured Soviet soldiers and Polish prisoners were used to test the operation of the gas chambers.)  Poisonous carbon monoxide gas was used, in a program code-named Operation T-4.  Dr. Friedrich Mennecke and his wife Eva expanded the inclusion criteria to include concentration camp residents too sick to work and later to the general Jewish prisoners.  By the spring of 1946, all Jewish psychiatric patients had been murdered.

Dr. Julius Hallervorden, a neuropathologist at the Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin received brains extracted from euthanasia, many from children killed at the nearby Brandenburg-Gordon clinic.  He ecstatically wrote about the specimens: “There was wonderful material among those brains, beautiful, mental defectiveness, malformations, and early infantile diseases.”  Dr. Ernst Wentzler ran a clinic that served wealthy families and he developed methods to treat premature infants and children with severe birth defects, including an incubator dubbed “the Wentzler warmer.”  He also supported ending the lives of the “incurably ill.”

The Nazi Party from 1939 to 1945 was the primary coordinator of the pediatric euthanasia (“mercy death”)  program.  It originally targeted children younger than 3 years, but it later expanded to include older children.  The methods used were: overdoses of the sedative Luminal (the brand name for phenobarbital); starvation; deadly injections of morphine; and asphyxiation by carbon monoxide.  A letter from the Reich Ministry of the Interior directed midwives and physicians to register all children born with severe birth defects.  These professionals were unaware that the information was fed to the euthanasia program.  The Final Solution of the Nazi party (the systematic genocide of European Jews), the first victims were infants and children with physical and mental disabilities.  Over 5,000 such children were killed.  Parents received letters falsifying the cause of death.

Using a chart of Mendel’s law of heredity, medical experts provided Hitler a purported claim for a law prohibiting Jews from marrying persons of “German blood.”  The Nüremburg Laws and the related Marital Health Law of October 1935 banned unions between hereditary “healthy” and “diseased” persons.  About 5,000 individuals of Jewish and Jewish hybrid unions were killed, many at the Brandenburg clinic.

In 1936, the Reich Office for Combating Homosexuality and Abortion stepped up efforts to prevent behavior seen as lowering the birth rate while new laws permitted abortions for Jewish and genetically “diseased” women.

Scientists considered racial types as “ideal constructs” never perfectly realized.  Politically, more important than physical appearance were lineage and deep Germanic roots.  Scientists regarded most Germans to be of “mixed” European lineage, corresponding to geographic origin: Nordic, Alpine, Mediterranean, and Balkan.  The psychologist Robert Ritter lent legitimacy, claiming data that showed that most Gypsies were offspring of “highly inferior habitual criminals.”  Dr. Eugene Fischer, director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics taught courses for elite Nazi SS doctors and provided opinions on paternity and racial purity of individuals, including the hybrid offspring of Jewish and non-Jewish German couples.

In an insightful article in The New Republic from May 3, 1941, Michael Straight wrote about the protest by the Bishop of Münster, Clemens August von Galen, thus: “Persons were not killed for mercy.  They were killed because they could no longer manufacture guns in return for the food which they consumed; because the German hospitals were needed for wounded soldiers; because their death was the ultimate logic of the National Socialist doctrine of racial superiority and the survival of the physically fit.”  This article was used to drum up American support for entering the war.

After World War II, these immoral men and women of science met with mixed justice.  Dr. Paul Nitsche was executed in 1948 for his war crimes.  Dr. Carl Clauberg was sentenced to 25 years in prison for crimes related to sterilization experiments, released early, and died in 1957. Dr. Josef Mengele, with doctorates in anthropology and genetic medicine, fled abroad and died in Brazil in 1979.

Others enjoyed post-war careers: Dr. Eugene Fischer became professor emeritus at the University of Freiburg and he died in 1967.  Dr. Otmar von Verschuer, a mentor of Mengele, established one of West Germany’s largest genetic research centers in Münster and he died in 1969.  Dr. Ernst Rüdin, who developed the Third Reich’s sterilization law, was classified as a nominal Nazi Party member and he died in 1952.

The fruits of the gruesome Nazi experiments remained active, such as Dr. Julius Hallervorden’s specimens from the euthanasia program which were used for study at the Brain Research Institute in Frankfurt until as recently as 1990.  He died in 1965.  Dr. Sophie Ehrhardt enjoyed a long academic career and her data on Gypsies from the Nazi years appeared in journals as late as 1974.  She died in 1990.  Dr. Ernst Wentzler set up pediatric practice in his hometown.  While he was questioned over his wartime activities, he was never prosecuted.  He died in 1973.

People may recoil by the mention of this exhibit, much less attend it.  But, if we as a society are to understand the developments of such gruesome manipulations of science and medicine, we must face the evidence.  “Never again” means understanding history and educating ourselves to prevent its repetition.

Deadly Medicine will be on display at the Parkway Central Library, located at 1901 Vine Street, until July 8th.  This exhibition, which is free and open to the public, will be located in the second floor gallery.  
 

Equality Forum 2012 Philadelphia with Israel as Featured Nation

— by Chip Alfred

The twentieth annual Equality Forum is being held in Philadelphia. This year this global LGBT summit is highlighting the achievements of the State of Israel in giving equal opportunities to all sexual orientations.

According to the Equality Forum‘s Executive Director Malcolm Lazin:  

Our 20th anniversary celebrates the transformation from a groundbreaking conference that focused on an emerging civil rights movement into the annual Equality Forum recognized as the premier annual national and international LGBT summit.

Israel as the featured nation will be represented by the Ambassador to the U.S., major Israeli LGBT leaders, and Tel Aviv DJs and entertainers.”

The annual Equality Forum includes 25 panels, International Equality Dinner, SundayOUT! at The Piazza, six parties, 13th Annual Gay and Lesbian Art Exhibit, theater, and special events. There is no registration fee and all panels are free.

Details of the Featured Nation Israel Programs follow the jump.
Michael Oren
Equality Forum Featured Nation Israel Programs

  • Ambassador of Israel to the U.S. Dr. Michael B. Oren as Keynote Speaker at International Equality Dinner
  • David AdikaIsraeli photographer David Adika featured at 13th annual Gay and Lesbian Art Exhibit
  • Israeli delegation including elected officials, leaders, drag queen, and entertainers
  • Tel Aviv Drag Queen Osher Sabag performs at Drag Party
  • Israeli Pop Star Shorty performs at SundayOUT! at The Piazza
  • Tel Aviv DJs spin at Equality Forum parties

International Equality Dinner
At the National Museum of American Jewish History – Saturday, May 5th, 7 to 10 p.m.

  • Houston Mayor Annise Parker  – Recipient of the 17th annual International Role Model Award
  • NBCUniversal  – Recipient of the 10th annual International Business Leadership Award
  • Israeli Ambassador Michael Oren – Keynote Speaker
  • MSNBC Anchor Thomas Roberts  – Master of Ceremonies


25 Major Panels including:

  • Featured Nation: Israel – Moderated by Israel native Nurit Shein, Executive Director, Mazzoni LGBT Health Center, with four leading Israeli panelists, including openly gay Tel Aviv City Council Member Yaniv Weizman,  Thursday, May 3rd at 8:30 p.m.
  • National Military Panel – Members of OutServe, a network of out service members, on obstacles LGBT military personnel face after “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” Saturday, May 5th at 1:00 p.m.
  • National Sports Panel – A panel of sports experts discusses the challenges facing openly LGBT amateur, college and professional athletes, Saturday, May 5th at 1:00 p.m.
  • National Religious Colloquy – Moderated by Rabbi Rebecca Alpert, Professor of Religion, Temple University, a panel of Catholics discusses LGBT inclusion in the Roman Catholic Church, Thursday, May 3rd at 7:00 p.m.  
  • National Youth Panel – Facilitated by Katherine Miller, discharged West Point cadet under “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” is a discussion with gay former University of Michigan Student Body President Chris Armstrong, and Iowa activist and son of lesbian parents Zach Wahls, Saturday, May 5th at 2:30 p.m.
  • National  Same-Sex Marriage Panel – Moderated by Rebecca Isaacs, Executive Director, Equality Federation, the panel surveys the status of marriage equality, Saturday, May 5th at 2:30 p.m.


SundayOUT!
At The Piazza – Sunday, May 6th, Noon to 7 p.m.

Over 150 vendors, artisans, galleries, bars, boutiques, cafés and restaurants in an Italian inspired open-air plaza. SundayOUT! includes music, recording artists, drag queens, and Israeli DJs and performers.

Special Theatre Performance

The Twentieth-Century Way – Set in L.A. in 1914, two actors are hired by police to entrap homosexuals in public restrooms for social vagrancy, at Play and Players, Thursday, May 3rd to Saturday, May 5th

Six Parties including:

  • NBCUniversal Welcome Party at Vedge – Thursday, May 3rd
  • Drag Show & Party at Tabu – Friday, May 4th
  • Stimulus Party – Friday, May 4th
  • Girl Fever at Sisters – Saturday, May 5th
  • Men’s Party at Voyeur – Saturday, May 5th
  • SundayOUT! Tea Dance at Tendenza – Sunday, May 6th

For a complete schedule of events, visit The Equality Forum Website.

Equality Forum is a national and international LGBT civil rights organization with an educational focus. Equality Forum coordinates LGBT History Month, produces documentary films, undertakes high-impact initiatives and presents the premier annual national and international LGBT civil rights summit.

 

How Commerce Fostered Ethnic Identity


Bananas feature prominently in immigrant lore. They were not found in the Old World, so people fresh-off-the-boat did not know how to eat them, often trying to eat the peel too. [Banana cart, 1900, Library of Congress]

— by Hannah Lee

As part of a series on immigrant history, the National Museum of American Jewish History and the University of Pennsylvania’s Jewish Studies program convened a panel of scholars on February 9th titled, “Getting Ahead: Immigrants, Business, and Ethnic Identity.” Three scholars presented the experience of Jewish, Italian, and Korean arrivals in America.

Hasia Diner of New York University said that Jewish historians have been reticent to study the impact of business on immigrant life when, in fact, business was a major lure to America. It’s a rich window to understand the communal experience, providing an “inside/outside” focus with businesses that met the needs of their people, the “co-ethnics,” as well as businesses that served as liaisons to American society.

These entrepreneurs often became their communities’ leaders, as founders of synagogues and backers of charitable programs. Their stores were their communities’ initial meeting places. In 1909, a group of mothers in Boston’s South End met at Hyman Danzig’s Three and Nine Cent store and dedicated themselves to improving health care in their poor neighborhood. Their efforts lead to the establishment that year of a 45-bed hospital, Beth Israel, which later expanded and became Harvard University Medical School’s teaching facility. In modern times, these ethnic businesses still draw people back from the suburbs to the original neighborhoods in the cities.

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As described in Mary Antin’s The Promised Land, a memoir of growing up on Arlington Street in Boston, the Jewish women who ran small businesses cooked during the lulls and customers learned to wait for the proprietor “to salt the soup and remove the bread from the oven.” Women were influential as customers too, as they organized the kosher meat boycotts in 1902 to protest the sharp increase in the price of kosher meat.

Jewish peddlers were often the first contact with the outside world. They traveled widely, even going to Southern plantations for their African-American customers. In one curious episode in rural North Dakota, the German immigrants asked their Jewish peddler — recognized for his piety — to fill in for their Lutheran minister while he was away. So, the Jew did what he knew, which was to teach parshat hashavuah, the Bible portion of the week, to the congregation.

Diane Vecchio of Furman University in Greenville, SC spoke about how Italian women engaged in income-producing activities that allowed them to remain in their homes and combine work with domestic responsibilities and childcare. Three types of businesses were favored: taking in boarders and selling groceries and serving cooked foods as an early form of restaurants.

Offering strangers a bed, dinner, and laundry services for a fee — initially to single men, then to married men who came ahead of their families — was a strong break with tradition but it was unlisted, relying on word-of-mouth references. In contrast, the grocery stores were listed in the name of the husband but were often run by the women. These stores sold homemade wine and home-baked bread in addition to imported foodstuffs that were important to the community. One woman shopkeeper managed even without any English fluency (or any writing of any kind) by creating symbols to record the transactions of each customer.

The restaurants were similar to the trattorias of Italy. They served simple, local fare without any menus. Over time, Americans “assimilated” to Italian food, so by the 40’s and 50’s, Americans readily traveled to the Italian neighborhoods to eat. In this way, Italian women had a major role in creating Italian identity in the United States.

Jennifer Lee (no relation) of the University of California, Irvine and a Visiting Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation reported that Korean immigrants have been the most educated, with 51% of them arriving with a college education (and another 20% with some college background). This is compared to a 27% rate of college education amongst other recent immigrants and 28% of American citizens with a bachelor’s degree. Korean immigrants migrated towards business as a response to blocked opportunities in the U.S. labor market because of their language barrier.

Korean merchants often operated in African-American neighborhoods, which are under-served by larger chain stores and supermarkets, often superseding the Jews. An interesting point made by Prof. Lee was that Koreans were especially good at mass-marketing luxury products. Whereas manicures used to cost $25 in full-service beauty salons, they are now only $7 to $9 in dedicated nail salons. Fresh flowers used to be available only at the florists, but they now can be bought cheaply at the corner deli.

A common criticism of these incursions into black neighborhoods was competition by foreigners. The reality is that African-American businesses served their own, particularly in styling hair and serving soul food. Koreans chose businesses where they needed minimal language, and the Jews still in the community — as second- or third-generation descendants —  ran stores that marketed high-end products such as furniture.

The media likes to focus on conflict, said Prof. Lee, who began her graduate study in 1992 at the time of the fierce race riots in South Central Los Angeles. But, what she was reading by the theorists was not supported by what she witnessed on the streets of West Philadelphia or Harlem, New York. Often, Korean merchants hired African-Americans as cultural and linguistic brokers, conflict resolvers, and mediators. This was important in fostering civility and heading off conflict. She also noted that Korean women were better at this skill than men, so they were often deployed to greet customers at the front of their stores.

The boycotts that have been waged against Korean businesses were protests against the symbol of black subordination, not against specific customer relationships. The protestors imported the value of black control in their neighborhoods. During the Depression in New York and Chicago, the slogan, “Don’t shop where you cannot work” was also used against Jewish merchants. In the mid-60’s, black nationalism also fought Jewish merchants, claiming their aggrandizement at the expense of black ghettoes. But as the sociologist John Dollard has written, the merchant sees only green, not black and white.

Once immigrants manage to move their businesses into the larger society, they served to foster greater understanding and to overcome prejudice by allowing Americans to become familiar with them, by personalizing them.

An audience member asked why do ethnic groups gravitate towards similar businesses? Co-ethnics have the advantage of sharing business acumen and business opportunities, said Prof. Lee. Businesses are often advertised for sale only through ethnic newspapers.

How do immigrants get the money to open their businesses? Prof. Vecchio said that the women often did so in their own homes, with minimal capital investment. Prof. Lee noted that immigrants do not rely on American banks, preferring to borrow money from family or from co-ethnics. Businesses are often paid partially in cash, with negotiated schedules for full payment. Using rotating-credit associations, such as favored by Koreans, every member contributes to a communal pot; the first person to use the money gets the least, the last member to get access to the money gets more, similar to interest accruement.

Kevin Kim, a Korean immigrant who runs a dry-cleaning store in my neighborhood, recalls that his mother controlled the family’s money, doling out $50 per week in spending money to each member who worked. It’s how they managed to save money — by enlisting their relatives and to limit expenditures. This frugal and industrious pattern of entrepreneurship is still active in the many immigrant communities in the United States.

 

Dazzling Tree Photo Exhibit


Tal Shochat, Rimon (Pomegranate), 2010, C-Print, 48.25 x 51 inches, Courtesy of Andrea Meislin Gallery, N.Y.

— by Hannah Lee

Just in time for Tu B’Shevat (the Jewish New Year of Trees) on February 8th, the The National Museum of American Jewish History is featuring an exhibit of prints of trees from the “In Praise of a Dream” series by Israeli artist Tal Shochat.

The exhibit developed through a confluence of motives.  One was an intent to creatively use a long wall in their downstairs gallery to bring in visitors, who could then explore the many artistic and historical artifacts in the new museum, which opened in November, 2010.  At the time, the Andrea Meislin Gallery in Chelsea, New York was exhibiting Shochat’s work.  The Chief Curator and Director of Exhibitions and Collections, Dr. Joshua Perelman (not the grandson of the same name of the philanthropists Ruth and Raymond Perelman) arranged for a loan of seven of the largest prints in the series, which will be on display through Earth Day, April 22nd.

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For Dr. Perelman, this has been a dream job, coming from New York six years ago to help plan for the new museum, and he now supervises a team of seven curators, registrars, and exhibit technicians.  He’s planning additional displays for the concourse wall and more information will become ready when this series moves on.

Shochat’s prints are of real trees in real settings.  She picks her specimens and waits until the perfect moment to photograph them.  She sprays the trees with water to make them sparkle, and she also enhances the lighting and adds a black backdrop.  The size of the trees seem remarkably short, when comparing the size of the fruits to the trunks.

Tal Shochat has had solo shows at the Rosenfeld Gallery in Tel Aviv, where she lives, the Herzliya Museum of Art, and the Haifa Museum of Art.  Her work is on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, and the Shpilman Institute of Photography in Tel Aviv.  Patrons interested in acquiring Shochat’s prints could contact the Andrea Meislin Gallery at [email protected].

The National Museum of American Jewish History is located at 101 South Independence Mall East in Philadelphia.  It is open Tuesday – Friday, 10 a.m. – 5 p.m. and Saturday – Sunday, 10 a.m. – 5:30 p.m.