With all the focus lately on Pennsylvania’s congressional district map, an important electoral milestone may have been overlooked — which is that more than 1 million Pennsylvanians have now used the Wolf administration’s online voter registration (OVR) site. The system, launched in August 2015 by Gov. Wolf, has made it easier and more secure for citizens to register to vote and update their existing registrations. The 1 millionth user was from Delaware County. [Read more…]
By Shira GoodmanFollowing the horrific shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Fla., we are mourning. And we are outraged. But we are not surprised. The truth is, we’re complicit in accepting this carnage, because we’ve allowed lawmakers to pretend there’s nothing we can do to prevent such shootings. We have tolerated losing 96 Americans a day to guns. [Read more…]
Editor’s Note: Rabbi Shloush recently attended a conference on anti-Semitism at the Vatican in Rome.
I dreaded returning to Rome. I remember being there a decade ago and I recall the unsettling feeling. After all, this is the place of our Galut (exile). Rome is the symbol of the crushing of Jerusalem and our people’s enslavement.
Nevertheless I was there to participate in a major international conference focused on anti-Semitism. How ironic. The Romans ransacked Israel, the Catholics were responsible for endless persecutions of our people, and here we were in Rome talking about anti-Semitism. [Read more…]
By Max Buchdahl
When Ryan Berger was about to enter his sophomore year of high school, the current University of Pennsylvania freshman watched coverage of the 2014 war between Israel and Hamas with nervous eyes. He was surrounded by people he cared about who had differing opinions on the war — and he wanted answers.
So Berger asked his mother, who is involved with the American Jewish Committee (AJC) in New York, what he could do to learn more about the issues. He wanted to know how a high-schooler, with little expertise but a large desire to get involved, could advocate effectively on behalf of Israel and the Jewish people. [Read more…]
By Joel S Davidi Weisberger
In an interview with a local Jerusalem weekly newspaper, the renowned Israeli historian of the Hasidic movement Dr. Isaac Alfasi , recounted an exchange that he once had with Israeli Prime Minister David ben Gurion. Alfasi, who served as President of the Israeli branch of Bnai Brith in the 1950s, was asked by the elder statesman, “Are you a Sephardi or an Ashkenazi?” “I am a Sephardic Jew from Poland,” Alfasi’s replied. Ben Gurion was incredulous, Alfasi recalled, and he asked, “How can one be a Sephardi from Poland?” Alfasi then explained to the man that indeed Sephardim had settled in various parts of Poland, and he happened to descend from one of those families that had retained this particular vestige of their ancestral culture.
In an article posted on the Israeli online news site YNET (March 13, 2007), the genealogist Orit Lavie explores the roots of her Alfasi forbears from Kharkov, Russia (now Ukraine). According to Lavie using my own translation:
“My connection to the Sephardic diaspora begins in the second half of the 19th century … [my ancestor] Yaakov Alfos was a descendant of Rabbi Avraham Alfos-Alfasi of Opoczno, Poland. The surname Alfasi denotes origins in Fez, Morocco … One of the most-well known members of this family was the famed Talmudist Rabbi Isaac Alfasi, known also by the acronym “RIF.” He was born in Algeria and eventually relocated to Fez, Morocco. At the end of his life, he resided in Spain and apparently one of his descendants ended up in Poland.”
Lavie pointedly concludes her piece:
“The saga of this family indicates that the perceived divide between Ashkenazim and Sephardim is not as wide as it seems and the distance between these two Jewish Diasporas is a lot closer than is commonly thought.”
I was reminded of these tidbits when I read Alexander Beider’s latest article on “faux” Sephardim entitled Many ‘Sephardic’ Jews Aren’t Actually Sephardic
While I feel that the article was interesting and enlightening, I do feel the need to point out what I perceive to be several errors of commission and omission.
“But most of all, we did not know what many people don’t know: that no group of Sephardic Jews ever migrated to Germany, with the exception of a single Sephardic community that made its way to Hamburg.”
Sephardim also established communities in other large cities in Western and Central Europe such as Prague and Vienna. In 1662, for instance, the converso turncoat Isaac Aboab testified before the Spanish inquisition as to the existence of a community of Portuguese returnees to the Jewish faith in Danzig/Gdansk in Poland among other places.
The mistaken belief that many European Jews are Sephardic is based almost invariably on surnames borne by members of their families.
While many Eastern European Jewish families with Sephardic-sounding family names stake a claim to Sephardic ancestry, many, if not most, who make this claim, do not in fact have Sephardic surnames. Often the claim is that the name had undergone “Ashkenazification” (typical of these would be the German equivalent to a prior Spanish surname, ex: Belmonte>Schoenberg).
Beider is correct that many Ashkenazim are mistaken in their belief that they are of Sephardic descent. I have come across quite a few American Jews who initially research their Eastern European forbears and often mistakenly conclude that since a particular ancestor was a member of a congregation called “Anshei Sephard,” which can literally be translated as “People of Sepharad,” their ancestor must have been Sephardic. In reality of course, this term was used by people who prayed in the Chassidic rite.
Another reason to claim Sephardic descent is the subject of John Efron’s excellent book “German Jewry and the Allure of the Sephardic.” According to Efron, when the German Jews embarked upon the quest for legal emancipation and social acceptance, they also undertook a program of cultural renewal. Part of this renewal was the casting off of an unwanted identity and the taking on of what they deemed to be a superior Jewish identity. In the mind of many an enlightened German Jew, Ashkenazim represented insularity, backwardness, moral, and even physical degeneracy. By contrast, the Sephardim of old Andalucía were seen as worldly and morally, intellectually and physically superior. Efron provides numerous examples in his book of Ashkenazi public figures who laid a claim to this legacy for the reasons enumerated above.
“No one better exemplifies the romantic tendency to venerate the Sephardim…than Theodore Herzl. With his vivid imagination and highly developed theatrical sense, this Budapest-born resident of Vienna construed for himself an imaginary lineage, wherein he claimed to be descended of Sephardic Jews. In one…his paternal great-grandfather, a Rabbi named Loebl, had been forcibly converted to Catholicism. After fleeing the Iberian Peninsula, Loebl emerged in Constantinople, whereupon he openly returned to Judaism…for his own sense of self and his own self-image Herzl concocted this fantasy wherein Loebl was no longer the Slovenian Jew of reality but the Spanish Jew of Herzl’s desires…Herzl longed to be anything but an Ashkenazic Jew from Central Europe.”
Instructively, Efron notes, “Lest one think that Herzl’s invention reflects a decidedly 19th century sentiment, in the course of writing this book, I had conversations with a surprising number of Ashkenazi Jews who declared to me that their families had originally come from Spain.” Efron dismisses this out of hand. Although in a personal correspondence he does concede that some Sephardim did make their way to Eastern Europe but overall the claims of Sephardic descent are, in his words, “A desperate cry for Jewish yikhus [noble descent].”
“Then you have several sources which claim that the famous Yiddish writer Isaac Leib Peretz is said to have Sephardic ancestors, likely due to numerous Sephardic Jews called Perez or Peres.”
This is no mere rumor or hearsay; Y.L. Peretz’s Sephardic ancestry has been the subject of much discussion over the years. The respected Yiddish literary critic, S. Niger Charney in a tribute article to Peretz published in the 1952 Yivo Annual of Jewish Social Science devotes considerable space to this particular family tradition. While Charney does calls call his Sephardic ancestry “a theory” and wishes there was documentary substantiation, he notes:
Though it has to this date not been definitely substantiated, Rosa Peretz Laaks, a close relative of the poet, tells in her memoirs that “the Peretz family possessed a genealogical document which states that the family originally came from Spain.”
Charney cites two other prominent Yiddishists who speak of Peretz’s Sephardic heritage including Zalman Reyzen and the playwright Aaron Zeitlin who himself quotes the respected Jewish historian Dr. Yitzhak Schipper to the effect that “there was a definite tradition in Peretz’s family regarding their Sephardic ancestry.”
During the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community of Amsterdam (referred to as the mahamad), considered one of the wealthiest Sephardic Jewish communities in Europe (if not the world) would often hand over some money to poor indigent Sephardim and send them to settle far away (these were referred to in Portuguese as despachos).
According to Inquisition archives, with the help of Ton Tlelen, Although most of these people were sent to places that had well-established Sephardic communities, some of them were also sent to overwhelmingly Ashkenazic Poland.
What follows is the Hebrew year, the names and the destinations of five such despachos(which they all have in common, namely Poland):
5448, Merari Belogrado Polonia
5455, Nieto de H.H. Usiel Polonia
5461, Mordehay Cohen Polonia
5462, Rahel Cuna Polonia
5474, Abraham Israel Guer Polonia (apparently a proselyte to Judaism).
One of the names, Usiel is of particular interest. He is referred to as a descendant of Hakham Uziel. This, according to Tielen, must be Hakham Isaac Uziel who died and was buried in Amsterdam in 1622. Uziel went to Poland in 1752 according to the archival document cited above. From another archival document from Poland, this time a list of Sephardim who migrated to Zamosc in the years 1588-1650, we come across one Abraham Uziel (whose name appears in the official documentation in the polonized form Uzelowicz).
Did the Uziel family in Zamocs occasionally experience the arrival of new family members? This would indicate that the Sephardic community in Zamosc did not die out soon after it was established – as many historians claim – but rather that it continued to exist well into the 18th century. It would otherwise be difficult to understand why the mahamad would for all practical purposes dump a member of a prominent Sephardic family in middle of Poland.
Above all, we must recall, as I did in my opening passage citing from Ms. Lavie, the distance between Sepharad and Ashkenaz is not all that great in the great scheme of things. Lavie mentions her Alfasi antecedents arriving in Poland from the Sephardic diaspora at some point in the distant past. One must recall that Jewish Diasporas were rarely stagnant; there were constants comings and goings from Sephardic centers to Ashkenazic centers and vice versa. As early as the 11th century, there was travel by Spanish scholars to Germany as well as by German and French scholars to Iberia . One of the most famous Ashkenazi scholars to settle in Spain was Rabbi Asher ben Jechiel who relocated to Toledo in the 14th century.
Other Jews in Poland have maintained very interesting traditions of Sephardic descent. Rabbi Yosef Wallis who heads the Israeli Orthodox Arakhim organization recently led a delegation back to the home of his tragic direct ancestor Rafael Valls on the Spanish island of Majorca. Valls was one of 37 secret Jews burned at the stake there in 1691 for refusing to renounce their Jewishness.
According to a profile in the New York Times:
Rabbi Wallis, 64, who was born in Israel and raised in New York, is the son of two Holocaust survivors from the Dachau camp. His father [a scion of Hasidim of the Gerrer sect from Pabianice, Poland], he said, remembered an old family Bible, lost during World War II, with the name of Rafael Valls at the top of the list of ancestors with birth and death dates that listed him as burned at the stake.
As we move further south in Eastern Europe, the preponderance of evidence for Sephardic settlement increases. In Hungary, as late as the 19th century the Synagogue of the Frenkim (a term that was commonly used by Ashkenazim to describe Sephardim) was located in Budapest. According to Kinga Frojimovics and Géza Komoróczy in “Jewish Budapest; Monuments, Rites, History, Isaac Almuslin” who lived in Pest in the last decades of the 18th century was a Frenk too. Adolf Agai (1836-1916, a Hungarian writer, journalist and editor reminisced about his Sephardic grandfather. “My late grandfather [Agai refers to him as Don Yitzhak in other places], founded the Frenk Synagogue in Budapest in the 30s . These Sephardi Jews dispersed from Spain all over the world, retained their mother tongue, Spanish, with great love and care. The older generation still speaks it at home. Old Castilian and ancient Andalusian chants and zemirot sounded at my grandfather’s table on holidays, where we used to eat an ethnic pastry filled with spinach.” Adolf Agai, “About my great-grandfather”, 1907 as cited in Jewish Budapest p. 33
I would be remiss if I omitted mention of recent DNA studies that have established the Sephardic origin of two very prominent Ashkenazic Rabbinic families, namely the Hassidic Twersky dynasty from Ukraine, and the Katznellenbogens, a very old family that was originally thought to have immigrated to Italy from Germany in the 16th century.
One can perhaps draw an analogy between Sephardim in eastern Europe and ethnic Armenians who arrived en masse to Poland where they were heavily engaged in commerce. In Lviv (Lemberg) for instance they constituted a significant percentage of the city by the 16th century. However, by the 17th century, they had begun to adopt Catholicism and rapidly assimilated among the overall Polish population. They would eventually lose their dominant position in international trade to Jewish merchants.
The Sephardim of Poland and elsewhere in Eastern Europe came at the invitation of several powerful local leaders. They engaged heavily in all manners of trade. Eventually, some would return to their points of origin while others would assimilate among the Ashkenazic majority. Some would “ashkenazify” their names while others would choose to retain their original surnames.
Beider comes to the conclusion that “very few” Sephardim made it to Eastern Europe, I contend, in light of the evidence-only some of which I present here- that a significant number of Sephardic Jews did indeed make it to Eastern Europe. I further believe that their history deserves thorough examination and study.
Joel S. Davidi Weisberger is the founder of the Jewish History Channel and a historian specializing in the history of Medieval Jewry and the Sephardic Diaspora. He is the author of the forthcoming book “The Exiles of Sepharad that are in Ashkenaz,” which explores the settlement of Sephardic Jews in various parts of Eastern Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. He may be contacted at [email protected]
Maccabi USA is seeking male Jewish rugby players born between 2002 and 2004 to represent the U.S. in rugby sevens at the inaugural Maccabi Youth Games in Israel, taking place between July 22 and August 1, 2018.
This ten-day event will combine tournament-style competition with touring and experiential education, alongside Jewish teens from Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Israel, South Africa and more. The six days of competition will be based in and around the city of Haifa, followed by three days of touring based in Jerusalem. The Games are in cooperation with the JCC Association, the JCC Maccabi Games, BBYO, and Maccabi organizations around the world.
For more information, contact Maccabi USA’s program director, Shane Carr at 215.561.6900 or by email: [email protected].
— by Samantha Voxakis
The Big Schmear is a new podcast about all things Jewish food that invites you to listen while you nosh. Lovers of Jewish food, Jewish foodies, and people who just love to eat will enjoy hearing episodes featuring conversations with chefs, food authors, and restaurant critics.
“For me, Jewish food is ingrained in my identity: it connects me with my past through the
memories of holiday meals shared with family and friends and it links me to the future as I
develop my own traditions,” said Beth Schenker, host and executive producer of The Big
Schmear. “This is truly a passion project for me and I hope to share the joys of Jewish food with
as many listeners as possible.”
An experienced producer, Beth has created numerous radio documentaries. For the past ten years she has served as the Assistant Dean for Jewish Studies/Director of Public Programming at Spertus Institute of Jewish Learning and Leadership in Chicago.
Upcoming episodes will feature an inside look at Kosherfest, an annual one-of-a kind, business to business, industry food conference, and episodes with famed cookbook author and Israeli food critic, Gil Hovav. New episodes of The Big Schmear will be posted on the second and fourth Monday of each month.
Israel is going gaga over President Trump, largely for recognizing Jerusalem as Israel’s capital. There are over 110 “God bless Trump” signs in Jerusalem. There are plans to name a future rail station near the Kotel (Western Wall) after Trump. The Jerusalem Friends of Zion Heritage Center put up a four-story display thanking him. But, there are many reasons to reconsider the abundant praise.
A major reason is that Trump, along with a majority of Republicans, is in denial about climate change, an existential threat to Israel, the US, and the world. Despite the overwhelming consensus of climate experts and the many recent severe climate events, Trump is the only major world leader denying climate change. He has pulled the US out of the 2015 Paris climate pact agreed to by all of the 195 nations attending, including Israel. He appointed a climate denier as director of the US Environmental Protection Agency. He also has filled many other important positions with those who deny anthropomorphic global change. He is doing everything possible to eliminate or weaken recent efforts to reduce greenhouse gases, claiming that he is freeing businesses from regulations.
Israelis should be especially concerned about climate threats. Due to climate change, the Middle East is becoming hotter and drier and, according to military experts, this makes violence, terrorism, and war more likely. If the rapid melting of polar icecaps and glaciers continue, the coastal plain that contains most of Israel’s population and infrastructure will be inundated by a rising Mediterranean Sea.
Israel is already facing the effects of climate change, now in the fifth year of a severe drought. The water level of the Sea of Galilee is at a 100 year low, much of the Jordan River is reduced to a trickle, and the Dead Sea is shrinking rapidly. Water experts warn that if the Sea of Galilee continues to shrink, it could become a salt sea like the Dead Sea, as underground springs release saline water into it.
Another important reason is that Trump’s policies are contrary to basic Jewish values in terms of concern for the disadvantaged, the stranger, the hungry, and the poor. Rather than improving Obamacare, which provided health insurance to tens of millions of Americans, Trump supported health legislation that would have caused up to 32 million Americans to lose their insurance and others to pay higher premiums. Rather than supporting efforts to rebuild America’s crumbling infrastructure (given a grade of D+ by the American Society of Civil Engineers), Trump and Republican legislators pushed through a tax bill that greatly benefits the wealthiest Americans and large, profitable corporations. This will increase the U.S. national debt by up to $1.5 trillion, giving the Republicans an excuse to carry out their long-time desires to cut social security, Medicare, Medicaid, and environmental and health protections.
Then there is the issue of Trump’s character. As NY Times conservative columnist Bret Stephens, a former chief editor of the Jerusalem Post, put it in a recent article, Trump’s character involves, “lying, narcissism, and bullying.” He continues: “In place of the usual jousting between the administration and the press, we have a president who fantasizes on Twitter about physically assaulting CNN. In place of a president who defends the honor and integrity of his own officers and agencies, we have one who humiliates his attorney general, denigrates the F.B.I. and compares our intelligence agencies to the Gestapo.” Do we really want to honor such a person and make him a role model for our children and grandchildren?
In addition, lavishing praise on Trump is adding to the current split between many American Jews and Israel. Almost 80% of American Jews disapprove of the job Trump is doing, according to a September poll by the American Jewish Committee. So when they see how Israel is going overboard in praising Trump it adds to the alienation many Americans feel due to recent Israeli decisions on prayer at the Kotel, conversion, and other issues. This could reduce the moral, political, and financial support Israel receives from American Jews.
Yes, but doesn’t Trump still deserve praise for his strong support of Israel? Somehow negative things about Trump’s positions and statements about Israel are being ignored. For example: Trump has not kept his pledge of seeing that there would be no space between the US and Israel, as he has demanded several times that Israel limit settlement construction. Trump’s $110 billion arms sale to Saudi Arabia reduces Israel’s qualitative military edge. In his Holocaust remembrance statement Trump omitted any mention of Jews. Trump appointed white supremacists to senior positions and retweeted neo-Nazi propaganda on several occasions. He failed to quickly condemn anti-Semitism several times. He has left the post of Special Envoy to Monitor and Combat Anti-Semitism vacant since taking office. He ended President Obama’s tradition of hosting a White House Seder. He compromised Israeli intelligence by sharing top secret information with Russia. Since Trump became president there has been a sharp increase in incidents of anti-Semitic and other bigoted statements and acts. There are many other examples.
Trump deserves praise for his decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, but not to be lionized, for the reasons above and more. Of course, Jerusalem is the capital of Israel, always has been and always will be. But the nations of the world will only acknowledge that if it is part of a comprehensive, sustainable resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. While Trump’s pronouncement about Jerusalem is good for Israel’s morale, it did not change the overall situation. It did cause much resentment among the Palestinians, other Arabs, and many nations, led to some violence, showed further evidence of widespread opposition to Israel’s position on Jerusalem through the votes in the UN Security Council and General Assembly, and resulted in a further decrease in the potential of a peace agreement. Also, Trump again signed a waiver so that the US embassy will not soon be moved to Jerusalem and US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson indicated that it will likely not be moved during Trump’s current term.
Yes, the peace process has been basically dead for some time, and the Palestinians certainly deserve much blame. But Israel needs to do everything possible to obtain a resolution of the conflict in order to avert continued and possibly increased violence and diplomatic criticism, effectively respond to her economic, environmental, and other domestic problems, and remain a Jewish and a democratic state. Many Israel strategic and military experts agree with this assessment, including all the living ex-heads of the Shin Bet. Of course, Israel’s security has to be paramount in any agreement.
Richard H. Schwartz, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus, College of Staten Island
With the influx of high-tech companies and Israeli military intelligence units, the desert city of Beer-Sheva is becoming the hub of Israel’s rapidly expanding cyber security industry. One of Beer-Sheva’s main draws is its world-class academic institution, Ben-Gurion University (BGU) of the Negev, which offers graduate study tracks in cyber security, and has collaborated with the Israeli government on a national cyber security center.
BGU’s cyber security work is being supported here in Philadelphia as well. The Mid-Atlantic Region of American Associates, Ben-Gurion University (AABGU) — a nonprofit organization that supports BGU — raised funds from its annual tribute dinner for the university’s Cyber Security Research Initiative, and its contrtibution was matched dollar-for-dollar by the Israeli government. The Cyber Security Research Initiative supports needed infrastructure and allocates grants for innovative cyber research at BGU, with the goal of creating a national cyber security research center that is globally unsurpassed. [Read more…]
By Marie Miguel
There are certainly more than enough horrific tales of how the persecuted lived under fascism in the middle of the 20th century, and indeed dozens of books with “Koestler” on their covers.
“Scum of the Earth” is a unique kind of autobiographical adventure, a guide to suffering atrocious treatment with as much good humor as possible. The book also describes how a totalitarian regime can subvert the morals of both states and individuals.
For someone who wasn’t actually a criminal, Arthur Koestler certainly saw the inside of a large number of cells. Reprising this aspect of his personal history is possibly the best way to explain what the reader can expect from “Scum of the Earth.”